10000 Words Dissertation Structure in UK
An excellent dissertation should present the
objectives, narrate the research methods you have used and shown some results. It
does have a particular structure unless suggested otherwise by your institution.
The structure of a dissertation can vary depending on the specific requirements of your program or institution, but there are some common elements that are typically included. Here is a general outline of the structure of a dissertation:
The front page of a dissertation, also known as the title page, is the initial section of the document that is presented to the reader. It typically contains a variety of important information that serves to identify the dissertation and its author. This information can include:
The title of the dissertation: A brief and descriptive title that accurately reflects the focus of the research being presented.
The name of the student: The full name of the author, as it appears on their academic records, should be included on the title page.
The name of the educational institution: The title page should also include the name of the university or other academic institution where the student is completing their degree.
The degree being pursued: This should specify the level of the degree (e.g. Bachelor's, Master's, PhD, etc.) as well as the specific field or program of study.
The date of submission: The title page should indicate the date the dissertation is being submitted, which is typically the date the dissertation is defended or approved by the student's committee.
In addition to the above information, some programs or institutions may also require additional details on the title page, such as the name of the student's supervisor or committee members, the department or program where the degree is being completed, or the location of the educational institution.
An abstract is a concise summary of the key elements of a dissertation, usually presented at the beginning of the document. It should provide an overview of the topic area, research approach, and main findings of the literature review, and should typically be between 250 and 300 words in length.
When writing an abstract, it is important to consider the following:
‣Provide a brief introduction to the topic and the wider context of the research, such as international, national, or local perspectives.
‣Define any key terms or concepts that are central to the research.
‣Explain why the topic is important or relevant.
‣Clearly state the research question, making sure that it is phrased as a question.
‣Provide an overview of the research methods used, and why these methods were chosen.
‣Summarize the main findings of the research and any conclusions that were drawn.
It is also important to note the differences between a topic or title, research question, aim, and objectives. A topic or title is a broad area of study, while a research question is a specific query that the dissertation aims to answer. The aim of the research is the overall purpose of the study, while the objectives are the specific goals or outcomes that the researcher hopes to achieve.
Chapter 1 - Introduction
The introduction in a dissertation should grab the reader's attention and not include actual results.
The examiner pays special attention to the introduction and conclusion, so the writer should focus on these parts.
Revisions, additions, and deletions may be made to different chapters throughout the writing process.
The introduction should include:
‣A comprehensive overview of the thesis segment and its significance to relevant individuals and society.
‣Justification of the research and its purpose.
‣Research questions or hypotheses and specific goals of the study.
‣Explanation of the content and reasons for inclusion of specific chapters.
‣The introduction should also provide an overview of the dissertation topic, the writer's objectives and aim, and an outline of the entire dissertation.
It should also demonstrate command of language, grammar, and style required to produce a scholarly piece of work.
Chapter 2 - Literature Review
What are the best ways to write a literature review?
Develop a clear focus: Ensure that your literature review has a clear focus and is aligned with the research question. Avoid including irrelevant or tangential information.
Read critically: Read critically and evaluate each source's relevance, methodology, and contribution to the field. Identify gaps and inconsistencies in the literature.
Use a systematic approach: Use a systematic approach to searching and reviewing literature. This can include creating a search strategy, using relevant keywords, and reviewing the reference lists of relevant sources.
Stay organized: Stay organized throughout the literature review process by keeping a detailed record of sources, notes, and annotations. This can help you track progress and avoid duplication of effort.
Use a variety of sources: Use a variety of sources, including academic journals, books, government reports, and other reputable sources.
Synthesize information: Synthesize the information from each source to create a cohesive and comprehensive review of the literature. Identify patterns and trends in the literature.
Write concisely: Write in a clear and concise manner, avoiding unnecessary detail or repetition. Focus on conveying the key points of each source.
Use a logical structure: Use a logical structure to organize your literature review, such as by theme or chronology. Use subheadings to help readers navigate the review.
Cite properly: Ensure that you cite all sources properly using the appropriate citation style. Avoid plagiarism by accurately paraphrasing and summarizing sources.
Revise and edit: Revise and edit your literature review to ensure that it is coherent, well-written, and effectively communicates your argument. Seek feedback from your supervisor or peers.
Consider alternative viewpoints: Consider alternative viewpoints and conflicting evidence in the literature. Address any potential weaknesses in your argument.
Keep up to date: Stay up to date with new research in the field and update your literature review accordingly. This can help to ensure that your dissertation is relevant and up to date.
Use visuals: Use visuals such as tables, charts, and graphs to help convey information and break up large amounts of text.
Discuss the implications: Discuss the implications of the literature for your research question and highlight any potential avenues for future research.
Remain focused on the research question: Throughout the literature review process, remain focused on the research question and how the literature supports your argument.
Primary Data Collection:
‣Importance of Reviewing Literature Before Data Collection
‣Dangers of Waiting Until the End of the Dissertation
Reasons for Conducting Literature Review Early:
‣Confirming Understanding and Absorption of Information
‣Proving Progress in Dissertation
‣Relevance to Dissertation Goals and Potential to Further Theories
‣Addition to Existing Knowledge and Comparison to Other Materials
‣Combining, Comparing and Contrasting Ideas and Views
Critical Review of Past Research:
‣Thorough, Critical and Informative
‣Demonstrating Contribution to Existing Research
Overall, it is important to conduct a literature review and review journals early in the dissertation process to confirm understanding, prove progress. Additionally, it is crucial to critically review past research and demonstrate contribution to existing knowledge in the field.
Where can we find latest references :
There are several ways to find the latest research on a specific topic:
Online databases: Many universities and research institutions have online databases that provide access to academic articles, conference papers, and other research materials. Some of the most popular databases include JSTOR, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost.
Google Scholar: Google Scholar is a search engine specifically designed for finding scholarly literature. It allows you to search for articles, theses, books, and other types of research materials.
ResearchGate and Academia.edu: These websites are social networking platforms for researchers and scholars, and they allow you to connect with other researchers in your field and access their published work.
Conference proceedings: Attending conferences in your field is a great way to stay up to date on the latest research and to network with other researchers. Many conferences publish proceedings, which are collections of papers presented at the conference.
Research organizations: Many research organizations and funding agencies publish reports and other materials that summarize the latest research in a specific field.
Just Sit Back Relax & Consider Your Work Done!!
Chapter 3 - Research Methodology
The research methodology chapter is an essential part of the dissertation that describes the methods used to gather and analyze data for the research. It should provide a clear and comprehensive overview of the research design, participants, data collection and analysis methods, and ethical considerations.
Clarify your research approach: Clarify the approach you have taken to your research, whether it is qualitative, quantitative, or a mixed-methods approach.
Justify your research design: Justify your research design by discussing why it is the most appropriate for your research question.
Explain your data collection methods: Explain your data collection methods, including any instruments used and how you obtained informed consent from participants.
Discuss your sample: Discuss the sample you used, including its size, characteristics, and how you recruited participants.
Describe your data analysis methods: Describe the methods you used to analyze your data, including any software or statistical techniques used.
Discuss the limitations: Discuss the limitations of your research design, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques. This shows that you are aware of potential weaknesses in your research.
Address ethical considerations: Address any ethical considerations that arose during your research, including how you ensured the confidentiality and anonymity of participants.
Describe your research process: Describe your research process, including any modifications you made to your research design, and how you addressed unexpected events or obstacles.
Use visual aids: Use visual aids such as flowcharts or diagrams to illustrate your research methodology and data analysis procedures.
Be transparent: Be transparent about your research methods, making it clear how you collected and analyzed your data.
Discuss any assumptions: Discuss any assumptions you made during your research and how they might have influenced your findings.
Discuss any unexpected findings: Discuss any unexpected findings that emerged during your research and how you addressed them.
Provide details: Provide detailed descriptions of each stage of your research process, including any challenges you faced and how you overcame them.
Seek feedback: Seek feedback from your supervisor or colleagues to ensure that your research methodology chapter is well-written, clear, and effectively communicates your research design and procedures.
Link back to the research question: Throughout the chapter, link back to the research question and how your research methodology supports your argument. This helps to ensure that your dissertation is coherent and focused.
The research methodology chapter should begin by describing the fundamental study philosophy and investigative methods used in the research.
It should then explain the data collection method and the data analysis method used, and justify the reasons for selecting them.
‣The research design refers to the overall plan or strategy for conducting the research and should be described in detail in the methodology chapter.
‣This should include the type of study conducted (e.g. experimental, observational, case study), the research setting, and any sampling techniques used.
The methodology chapter should also provide details on the participants in the study, including their characteristics (e.g. age, gender, education level) and how they were recruited.
Data Collection Methods:
The methods used to collect data, such as surveys, interviews, observations, or experiments, should be described in detail. Additionally, any procedures or protocols used to ensure the reliability and validity of the data should be explained.
How to build questionnaire for survey
Points on creating a questionnaire:
‣Define the research objectives
‣Choose the questionnaire format
‣Develop clear and precise questions
‣Pre-test the questionnaire with a small sample group
‣Make revisions based on feedback from the pre-test
‣Finalize the questionnaire with clear formatting
‣Administer the questionnaire to participants
‣Analyze the collected data
where can questionnaire be freely submited to receive most answers:
There are several ways to freely submit a questionnaire to receive a large number of responses. Some options include:
Online survey platforms: There are various online survey platforms that allow you to create and distribute a questionnaire for free. Some popular options include Google Forms, SurveyMonkey, and Typeform. These platforms provide easy-to-use templates and tools for creating and distributing surveys, and they also offer features for analyzing the data collected.
Social media: You can also use social media platforms to distribute your questionnaire. For example, you can create a post on Facebook or Twitter asking people to fill out your survey, or you can create a poll on Instagram.
Email: You can also distribute your questionnaire via email. You can create a list of email addresses of potential participants, and send them an email with a link to the survey.
Online communities: You can also post your questionnaire in online communities such as forums, discussion boards, or online groups. This will allow you to reach a specific target audience.
Research Panels: Another way is to reach out to research panels or sample providers, which are groups of people who have agreed to participate in research studies. These participants can be a good sample for your research.
It is important to consider the target population when choosing the way of distribution. Some platforms or methods might be more appropriate for certain types of research. It's also important to keep in mind that the more you can reach out to the potential participants, the more answers you will have.
‣The methods used to analyze the data, such as statistical analyses or qualitative data analysis techniques, should be described in detail.
‣The software or tools used to analyze the data should also be mentioned.
‣The methodology chapter should also address any ethical considerations in the research, such as protecting the privacy and confidentiality of participants or obtaining informed consent.
‣Steps taken to ensure ethical conduct in the research should be described.
Overall, the research methodology chapter should provide a clear and comprehensive description of the methods used in the research, and the purpose and rationale behind them, it should also address the ethical considerations that were taken into account during
the research process. This chapter plays a crucial role in the dissertation as it establishes the credibility and validity of the research. It allows readers to understand the steps taken to conduct the research, and evaluate the methods used to gather and analyze data. By providing a clear and detailed account of the research methodology, the methodology chapter not only helps the reader to understand the research but also helps the researcher to reflect on the choices made during the research process.
What is ethics form
Once decision is done of which kind of participants would be included in your dissertation, students have to fill in the ethics form. An ethics form (also known as an ethics application or ethics review form) is a document that researchers must fill out and submit in order to receive ethical approval for their research. This form typically includes a description of the research and how it will be conducted, as well as any potential risks or benefits to participants.
Ethics forms are typically required when the research involves human participants or sensitive data. The purpose of the ethics form is to ensure that the research is conducted in an ethical manner, with due consideration for the rights and welfare of the participants.
Ethics forms are typically submitted to an ethics review board or committee, which is responsible for reviewing the form and determining whether the research meets ethical standards. The review process can take several weeks or months, depending on the complexity of the research and the availability of the review board.
It's important to submit the ethics form as early as possible in the research process, as the review process can take some time. In some cases, the ethics form may need to be submitted before the research can begin.
Chapter 4 - The Research Analysis
For Detailed Discussion on your Dissertation
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Use a thematic approach: Consider using a thematic approach to organize your analysis, grouping related findings together to form themes or patterns.
Use quotes or examples: Use quotes or examples from your data to illustrate your findings and add depth to your analysis.
Consider the context: Consider the context of your research and how it might affect your findings. For example, if your research was conducted in a particular geographic location or cultural context, discuss how this might influence your results.
Highlight any significant outliers: Highlight any significant outliers or unexpected findings in your analysis, and discuss how they might affect your conclusions.
Use triangulation: Consider using triangulation, or using multiple methods or data sources to confirm your findings and increase the validity of your research.
Consider counterarguments: Consider counterarguments to your findings and discuss how you addressed them in your analysis.
Discuss the implications: Discuss the implications of your findings for theory, practice, or policy, and consider any potential future research directions.
Use a clear and concise writing style: Use a clear and concise writing style to ensure that your analysis is easy to understand and follow.
Link back to your research question and objectives: Throughout your analysis chapter, consistently link back to your research question and objectives to demonstrate how your analysis is answering them.
Use your own voice: Use your own voice and perspective in your analysis, rather than relying solely on external sources or theories.
Discuss any ethical considerations: Discuss any ethical considerations that emerged during your analysis, such as issues of confidentiality or consent.
Use subheadings: Use subheadings to break up your analysis into smaller, more manageable sections, and make it easier for readers to follow.
Use language appropriate to your audience: Use language that is appropriate to your university, avoiding technical jargon or overly complex terminology.
Discuss any limitations of your study: Discuss any limitations of your study and how they might affect the generalizability of your findings.
This chapter should provide a detailed description of the methods used to analyze the data collected in the study.
It should include the following elements:
‣The type of data analysis conducted (e.g. qualitative, quantitative)
‣A description of the specific data analysis techniques used (e.g. statistical analysis, content analysis, thematic analysis)
‣An explanation of how the data was organized and prepared for analysis
‣A presentation of the key findings and results of the data analysis
‣A discussion of the implications of the findings and their relationship to the research question and objectives
‣It should be written in a clear and logical manner and should be easy to understand for the readers.
‣It should be supported by relevant tables, figures, and charts to help visualize and understand the data
‣It should be written in a way that is consistent with the overall structure and flow of the dissertation
‣It should include a critical evaluation of the data analysis methods used and their limitations.
‣It should be properly cited and provide a list of references for further research.
How to decide which tools can be used for analysis
There are many tools available for data analysis, and the best one for you will depend on your specific needs and the nature of your data. Some popular tools for data analysis include:
Excel: Microsoft Excel is a widely used tool for data analysis. It offers a variety of functions and features for organizing, visualizing, and analyzing data.
SPSS: IBM SPSS is a powerful statistical software that is commonly used in the social sciences. It offers a range of functions for data analysis, including descriptive statistics, regression analysis, and t-tests.
R: R is a programming language and software environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is widely used by data scientists and researchers for data analysis and visualization.
Python: Python is a general-purpose programming language that is often used for data analysis and machine learning. There are many libraries and tools available for data analysis in Python, such as NumPy, Pandas, and Matplotlib.
SAS: SAS (Statistical Analysis System) is a software suite for advanced analytics, business intelligence, data management, and predictive analytics. It is commonly used in industries such as finance, healthcare, and government.
There are many other tools available for data analysis, and the best one for you will depend on your specific needs and the nature of your data. It's a good idea to do some research and try out a few different tools to find the one that works best for you.
Chapter 5 - The Results
In a research that gathered huge quantity of quantitative data, the result
section would be a simple and straightforward representation. Begin by describing
your unit of evaluation and model and the representation of the data would comprise
The results section of your dissertation is where you present the findings of your research. Here are some tips for writing the results section:
Begin with an overview: Start by providing an overview of the main findings of your research. This should give the reader a clear sense of what the results are and what they mean.
Present the data: The results section should include a clear and concise presentation of the data you collected. This can include tables, graphs, charts, or other visual aids to help illustrate the results.
Use clear and concise language: It's important to use clear and concise language in the results section. Avoid using jargon or technical language that may be confusing to the reader.
Emphasize key findings: Make sure to highlight the most important findings of your research in the results section. These are the findings that will be most relevant to your research question or hypothesis.
Avoid interpretation: The results section should focus on presenting the data and findings, rather than interpreting them. The interpretation of the results should be reserved for the discussion section.
Use headings and subheadings: Using headings and subheadings can help to organize the results section and make it easier for the reader to understand.
Proofread carefully: As with any other section of your dissertation, it's important to proofread the results section carefully to ensure that it is error-free.
In a phenomological research it becomes difficult to isolate analysis from the
result part. Hence, here you must try to explain and justify the utilized data.
Here illustrations and diagrams could help in providing a clearer picture.
Chapter 6 - The Discussion
The Discussion chapter of a dissertation is where you interpret and make sense of the findings from your research. This chapter should include the following points:
‣A summary of the main findings from the research
‣An interpretation of the results in relation to the research questions and hypotheses
‣A critical examination of the findings, including any unexpected or inconclusive results
‣A discussion of the limitations of the study and their impact on the validity of the findings
‣An evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the research methods used
‣A discussion of how the findings contribute to the larger field of study and any potential future research directions
‣A comparison of the results of the study to existing literature and previous research in the field
‣An examination of the implications and practical applications of the findings
‣An exploration of any unexpected or surprising results that emerged during the research
‣A discussion of any limitations or constraints of the study, and how they may have affected the results
‣Suggestions for future research, including areas for further exploration and potential improvements to the study design
‣A conclusion that summarizes the main findings and highlights their significance in relation to the research question and overall field of study
‣A reflection on the research process, including any challenges or limitations encountered, and any lessons learned for future research endeavors
It is important to approach this chapter with a critical and reflective mindset, considering the learning and insights gained through the research process. Under this section, you need to discuss strengths and weaknesses of your research
and also identify limitations.
Chapter 7 - The Conclusion
Here are some tips for writing the conclusion chapter of your dissertation:
Summarize the main findings: The conclusion should summarize the main findings of your research, highlighting the most important and relevant results.
Emphasize the significance of the research: The conclusion should also explain the significance of the research, discussing how it contributes to the existing body of knowledge in your field.
Address any limitations: It's important to acknowledge any limitations of your study in the conclusion. This can include limitations in the data or methods used, as well as any other factors that may have influenced the results.
Suggest directions for future research: The conclusion should suggest areas for future research, based on the results of your study. This can help to build on your research and advance the field.
Keep it concise: The conclusion should be concise and to the point, focusing on the most important points. Avoid introducing new information or going into too much detail.
Integrated all aspects of your argument: Integrate all the aspects of your argument to come up with a convincing answer to the question you initially presented. Your answer should also justify your conclusion.
Picture the possible future development of your research topic.
‣Mention if your findings are applicable in real life or have any practical implications.
‣Refer to the objectives, present the synopsis of the most important points to depict the methods to tackle the research queries.
‣Show the directions of proposition of the study undertaken; tell who can have an effect of the results and what can be the influence on them.
‣Spot out the weaknesses in the research work done and also the research work's limitations.
‣State suggestions on the future research work that can be done and how can your research work will help
Similarly, you must be spending good time in coming out with an impressive introductory opening to get a convincing end to any dissertation.
‣Include a list of all sources cited in the dissertation, organized alphabetically by author's last name.
‣Use a consistent citation style, such as Harvard, Vancouver, APA, MLA, or Chicago, throughout the dissertation.
‣Include all relevant information for each source, such as the author's name, publication date, title, and publication details.
‣Ensure that all sources cited in the text are included in the reference list, and vice versa.
‣Double-check the accuracy of all reference information and ensure that they are properly formatted.
‣If you have used any online sources, make sure the links are working and up to date.
‣Include any additional sources, such as interview transcripts or data sets, that were used in the research but not cited in the text.
‣Proofread the reference list for errors and consistency.
‣Make sure the reference list is complete and in the correct format as per the university guidelines.
‣A bibliography is a list of sources that were consulted during the research process but not directly cited in the dissertation. It contains all the list of all the sources of the documentation discussed while preparing the dissertation. They are listed alphabetically according to the author's surname.
‣Organize the bibliography alphabetically by author's last name.
‣Use a consistent citation style, such as Harvard, APA, MLA, or Chicago, throughout the dissertation.
‣Include all relevant information for each source, such as the author's name, publication date, title, and publication details.
‣Double-check the accuracy of all bibliographic information and ensure that they are properly formatted.
‣If you have used any online sources, make sure the links are working and up to date.
‣Consider including any additional sources, such as government reports or data sets, that were used in the research but not cited in the text.
‣Proofread the bibliography for errors and consistency.
‣Bibliography is optional and not all universities require it.
‣Make sure the bibliography is complete and in the correct format as per the university guidelines.
‣Bibliography is a good way to showcase the depth of your research and the sources you have consulted.
It is important to mention the resources from where you have collected the information and to cite the references accurately, as not doing so could result in an accusation of plagiarism and failure of your dissertation.
To avoid any overlook, the appendix list must be clearly referred in the main body
of the thesis. This section can be considered as a dump of referenced material which
are not fitted in the thesis. Quality is rewarded against quantity. So any reference
material given here should be of use, it may be in detailed or just in brief but
adequately relevant to the subject for the core thesis. Now if you are doing a study
which involves survey questions then the Appendices can hold the copy of the questionnaire
to show the proof of the research. To tell that this is way the data was collected,
In this section, you should include how you have collected the data for your research.
For instance, surveys, questioners, etc.
You need to acknowledge all the persons who helped you in any manner whatsoever.
They could be your lecturer, library staff or the people who contributed with their
time to be interviewed.
Other guidelines for structuring a dissertation:
- Use Times New Roman font, size 12, with double spacing
- Set the margins to 1 inch for the bottom, top, and right, and 1.5 inches for the left
- Make sure figures and tables fit on the page. If they do not, you can switch to landscape format for that page
- Use Microsoft Word headings to update the table of contents
- It is important to follow the specific dissertation structure requirements of your supervisor and institution.
- Proofreading and editing for grammar is essential to improve the chances of success.
- Clarity and directness in writing are important for approval by the examination board.
- If no structure guidelines are provided, include the common components listed above.
- Follow all specification requirements for font, paper size, and other details.
- Include a list of abbreviations used in the dissertation.
‣List all your references after the conclusion in one list
‣ Ensure that you use Harvard referencing or said referencing mentioned in the guidelines
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